The ARINC 653 specification is published and maintained by the Aeronautical Radio Inc. (ARINC), started in 1929 as a major provider of transport communications and system engineering solutions for eight industries including airports and aviation.
ARINC 653 is still an evolving standard aimed primarily at Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) and is intended to compliment ARINC 651, which is the Design Guidance for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA). IMA has traditionally been implemented without a high-level Real Time Operating System (RTOS) in the past, due to the software integrity requirements for DO-178 Design Assurance Level (DAL) A.
The IMA concept has been evolving in civilian aircraft systems from many disparate systems that provided single functions to full fly by wire with centralized core IMA processing, where in the past pilots were interfacing to hydraulic control systems using mechanical control yokes are now using digital control sticks. Advances in safety critical or deterministic Ethernet (ARINC 664) allow fast communication between IMA systems and sensors on the aircraft.
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